Gender: Other Issues

• Culture • Disability • Education • Governance • Health • Human Rights • ICT • Livelihood • Media • Millennium • Peace • Refugees & IDPs • Water • Work


24 Tips for Culturally Sensitive Programming (PDF) presents 24 tips, one per page, for culturally sensitive programming, based on research carried out by UNFPA. Also in Spanish, French, Arabic and Russian


Bridge offers various publications on disability


Action for Slum Dwellers' Reproductive Health, Allahabad (ASRHA) – Uttar Pradesh, India (PDF)
This program for girls aged 14-19 provided reproductive health information, vocational counseling and training, and assistance with opening savings accounts in slum areas of Allahabad. Literate girls were trained to become more effective communicators and facilitators for group discussions; each peer educator then hosted a small group of girls at her home once a week. Vocational counseling was then provided, which emphasized the importance of paid work and savings

Empowering Women, Developing Society: Female Education in the Middle East & North Africa (MENA) (PDF)
"Education helps women take advantage of opportunities that could benefit them and their families, preparing women for the labor force and helping them understand their legal and reproductive rights." Based on this observation, the authors recommend that "efforts to improve female education in MENA countries need to go beyond rhetoric and should involve policies and programmes with measurable results.”

Gender Achievements and Prospects in Education: The GAP Report, Part 1 (1.9 MB PDF)
There are a number of reasons why girl children are never sent to school or taken out when they reach puberty. Some countries are actively working to keep girls in school – This report gives examples of Bangladesh, Uganda and Gambia.

Gender Equality in Schools (498kb PDF)
Published by Oxfam in Dec. 2005, this paper emphasizes the centrality of communication and advocacy in achieving global goals such as Education for All (EFA), as well as in ensuring that girls and women draw on education to ensure their full and equal participation in society. The paper presents school assessment questions to guide a vision of a "girl-friendly" school, which would encourage active challenging and questioning of the culture of the school, the curriculum, and narrow-minded concepts and prejudices. Specific strategies for fostering gender-equitable education are discussed.

  Girls’ education factsheet (PDF)
This fact sheet sets out the goals and strategies of the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) for achieving gender equality in education. It provides an overview of progress in achieving the MDG for gender equality in education, and describes the Department’s priority areas and country-level initiatives and achievements in sub-Saharan Africa.

Gender-responsive budgeting in education (PDF)
Gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) is an attempt to ensure that gender-related issues are considered and addressed in all government policies. This paper uses the GRB approach to explain how governments and donors can promote gender equality in education through their financing decisions.

Promoting gender in adult basic education (PDF)
This paper argues that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) do not directly address the issue of adult basic education and literacy, in spite of these being essential for achieving the Millennium targets.


Center for Asia-Pacific Women in Politics (CAPWIP) draws on networking and advocacy - as well as research, documentation, and publication - to promote equal participation of women in politics and decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region.


First Steps – Cambodia (881kb PDF)
This live call-in radio programme is a joint initiative of Cambodia's government broadcaster Radio National Kampuchea and the BBC World Service Trust. Broadcast one hour every week, the programme is formatted to appeal to rural women with maternal and child health messages.

Gender Equity and Equality in Health: a Ugandan Analysis

Gendered Health Systems Biased Against Maternal Survival: Preliminary Findings from Koppal, Karnataka, India (429kb PDF)
In this paper the authors outline the context of pregnant women’s lives and the plural health systems they encounter in Koppal, the most deprived district in the state of Karnataka, south India.

WHO: Handbook on access to HIV/AIDS-related treatment: a collection of information, tools and resources for NGOs, CBOs and PLWHA groups

WHO also has a 56pp. publication, “Integrating Gender into HIV/AIDS Programmes: a Review Paper” (258kb PDF). In its Background chapter it says: “Gender roles and relations directly and indirectly influence the level of an individual’s risk and vulnerability to HIV infection. Gender is also a factor in determining the level and quality of care, treatment and support that HIV-positive men and women receive, the burden of care taken on largely by women, and the negative economic and social consequences of AIDS.”

There are major issues around the ways that women cannot get access to services. There is a summary in Progress in Human Reproduction Research (PDF)

Women: the face of AIDS in Africa, more action needed against high female infection rates
Doctors, governments and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have realized that not only does the global struggle against AIDS have an African face, it is increasingly the face of an African woman. As infection rates mount, scientists and researchers are scrambling to understand the causes and to fashion new policies and programmes in response.

See also the networklearning section on health

Human Rights

Training package on Violence Against Women And Safety Strategies (PDF)

Articles and news related to promoting the rights of girls in all areas and stages of their lives, advancing the rights and status of girls and assisting them to develop their full potential as women.

Gender, HIV & Human Rights: A training manual”, which can be downloaded in six PDF files with a total of 213pp

Nurturing Young Men's Partnerships with Women – India
Working in partnership with young people of both sexes in 20 villages in Uttaranchal, Society for Integrated Development of the Himalayas (SIDH) has developed a comprehensive, gender-sensitive, non-formal educational curriculum - at the heart of which is a 4-day training module that draws on interactive, participatory processes.

Three case studies: Involving Men to Address Gender Inequalities (742kb PDF)

Gender-based violence (466kb PDF) – a report providing lessons learned from ten pilot projects that used a programme guide created by UNFPA to help health care providers address gender-based violence.

Shedding Abuse – a course for Men who use Domestic Violence

Women in an Insecure World: Violence against Women, Facts, Figures and Analysis (1.5MB PDF)
The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) has published this report about hidden gendercide and ‘missing’ women. Issues are selective abortion and infanticide; less food and medical attention, as compared to males; and sexual offenders, 'honour killings', and domestic violence.

In Humanitarian work: In chapter 5 [part A] of ICVA's “Growing the Sheltering Tree: Protecting Rights through Humanitarian Action” is “Practices to Promote and Protect the Rights of Women and Girls”. This looks at the need to ensure education, ending FGM etc.

A Gender and humanitarian Assistance Resource Kit is available from Reliefweb to help people “mainstreaming Gender into the Humanitarian response”

Women & Islam: what does the Koran actually say about the rights of women?

The arguments for comprehensive reproductive care are based on public health concerns, human rights, equity and social justice. See WHO's reproductive health section or the Primary Health Care section on this site.

See also the networklearning section on human rights

Information and Communication technology (ICT)

Are ICTs Gender Neutral?

Connecting island communities (2.9MB PDF)

E-Chutney Project - Fiji
Launched by the Fiji government's ITC Department, E-Chutney is designed to empower women in Navua, a small agricultural centre in Fiji, who have for years made a few extra dollars on the weekends producing and selling tamarind chutney on the local market. By enabling these women to use ICTs to reach customers in the country's largest market (the capital, Suva), this initiative aims to increase their income – and their self-esteem.

ICT for Development


Eldis offers Livelihoods Connect: up-to-date, diverse and credible information on the application of livelihoods approaches to development, research, policy and practice.

From the International Food Policy Research Institute: Food Security in Practice No. 2: Using Gender Research in Development.


Case Study: Movimiento Manuela Ramos (170kb PDF)
Initiated in 1978 by a core group of 7 women involved in politics and organised labour, Movimiento Manuela Ramos (MMR) is an organisation advocating for gender equity for Peru's women. Strategies for empowering women include participation and interpersonal communication, alliance-building, and mass media.

Gender and advertising in Southern Africa
Covering 1,650 radio, television, print and billboard advertisements in Mauritius, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, this study establishes how women and men are represented and portrayed in advertisements. Can be downloaded in PDF per chapter.

Gender for journalists: toolkit
Guide to gender awareness and sensitivity in the media.

Impact Data – Taru
Population Communications International's Hindi radio serial drama Taru covered some of the most poverty-stricken states in northern India. It is estimated that the serial, which is a story about a 21-year-old woman who resists cultural norms and pursues further education, had a listenership of between 20 and 25 million people. Respondents in the sentinel site area 1 year after the broadcast had significantly stronger beliefs about gender equity and perceived reduced barriers to gender equity.

Putting ICTs in the Hands of Women – India
In collaboration with infoDev, Datamation Foundation Trust is working with the women of Kanpur and "chikan" embroidery workers of Lucknow to establish community multi-media (CMC) centres in several economically poor communities in the Lucknow/Kanpur area. Marketing goods through skills-based ICT use is only one component of the project; the women are also using ICTs to develop a "voice" to meet their information and communication needs.

Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality & Empower Women

A variety of information on MDGs and Gender Equality

The World Bank has various publications  

Peace and Security

Women and DDR: looks at countries emerging from conflict and at the way “women play essential roles in disarming, demobilising and reintegrating, yet are almost never included in the planning or implementation of these processes.

The UNIFEM webpage Governance, Peace and Security tells us the following: Women remain under-represented in parliaments, corporate boardrooms, peace negotiations and the many other venues in which decisions are made. UNIFEM programmes promote women's leadership in all sectors.

Refugees & IDPs

WHO: Gender Considerations in Disaster Assessment. A lesson learnt (107kb PDF): after the fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina, ECHO funded a number of counseling programs for women who had suffered from going on the run, from rape, from the death of people they loved etc.

A fact sheet (PDF) on women in the disaster process including vulnerability, response, and the need for gender analysis

A briefing note (PDF) prepared by WHO on current research concerning gender and disasters, research gaps and implications of current research for disaster relief programmes and policies.

Displaced women and girls at risk: risk factors, protection solutions and resource tools (PDF).
This paper aims to clarify risks leading to displacement, risk factors during displacement and risks that inhibit safe and sustainable return. The authors look at protection solutions in the context of displacement and in situations of return. Tools are presented for assessing risks and for identifying good field practices that reduce the risks displaced and returnee women and girls confront.


Women, water policy, and reform: global discourses and local realities in Zimbabwe (PDF)
Water reforms in Zimbabwe – will they allow for women’s participation and decision-making?

Work has various documents and partners’ stories

Gender and trade

Various articles at

An example of Gender in Organizations from a direct experience in Nepal. PDF files training packages for download.


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nicolien 2015
Nicolien Wassenaar
Gender Editor

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